Spectro-Gonio Radiometer

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'''Laboratory Experiment facility'''
 +
 +
== '''spectro-gonio radiometer''' ==
 +
 
This spectro-gonio radiometer has been specially designed to measure with a high photometric accuracy the bidirectional reflectance of bright planetary materials over most of the solar spectrum and under wide illumination/observation configurations.
 
This spectro-gonio radiometer has been specially designed to measure with a high photometric accuracy the bidirectional reflectance of bright planetary materials over most of the solar spectrum and under wide illumination/observation configurations.
  
Line 6: Line 10:
 
Saint Martin d’Hères, France  
 
Saint Martin d’Hères, France  
  
'''Persons in charge''':  
+
'''Persons in charge''':
- Scientific : Bernard Schmitt, Research director  
+
 +
- Scientific : Bernard Schmitt, Research director
 +
 
- Technical : Olivier Brissaud, Engineer  
 
- Technical : Olivier Brissaud, Engineer  
 
- Type: Laboratory Experiment facility
 
  
[[Spectral range]] : 0.3 - 4.5 µm (-> 5.0 µm: lower S/N) (4.2-4.3µm: atm. CO2 limited)  
+
 
[[Spectral resolution]] : variable  
+
'''Technical characteristics''':
- mini : < 0.1 nm (but S/N limited)  
+
 
- maxi : 6 nm (<750nm), 12 nm (<1500nm), 24 nm (<3000nm), 48nm (>3000nm)  
+
[[Spectral range]] : 0.3 - 4.5 µm (-> 5.0 µm: lower S/N) (4.2-4.3µm: atm. CO2 limited)
 +
 +
[[Spectral resolution]] : variable
 +
 +
- mini: < 0.1 nm (but S/N limited)
 +
 +
- maxi: 6 nm (<750nm), 12 nm (<1500nm), 24 nm (<3000nm), 48nm (>3000nm)  
 
 
 
[[Bidirectional Reflectance]]  
 
[[Bidirectional Reflectance]]  
- Incidence angle : 0° to 85°  
+
 
resolution: 0.1°  
+
- ''Incidence angle'': 0° to 85° ; resolution: 0.1° ; maximum sampling : 0.1°
maximum sampling : 0.1°
+
 
- Emergence angle : 0° to 80° (to 83° for dark / fine grained samples)  
+
- ''Emergence angle'': 0° to 80° (to 83° for dark / fine grained samples) ; resolution : ± 2° (may be reduced to < ± 0.5°, but S/N limited) ; max. sampling : 0.1°
resolution : ± 2° (may be reduced to < ± 0.5°, but S/N limited)  
+
max. sampling : 0.1°  
+
- ''Azimuth angle'': 0° to 180° ; resolution : ± 2° (may be reduced to < ± 0.5°, but S/N limited) ; max. sampling : 0.1°  
- Azimuth angle : 0° to 180°  
+
 
resolution : ± 2° (may be reduced to < ± 0.5°, but S/N limited)  
+
- ''Phase angle'': mini to 165° ; mini : ~ 8° for bright / large grained samples ; ~ 4° for dark / fine grained samples  
max. sampling : 0.1°  
+
- Phase angle : mini to 165°  
+
mini : ~ 8° for bright / large grained samples  
+
~ 4° for dark / fine grained samples  
+
 
 
- Illumination diameter (nadir) : 200 mm  
+
- ''Illumination diameter'' (nadir): 200 mm  
- Observation diameter (nadir) : 20 mm  
+
- ''Observation diameter'' (nadir): 20 mm  
  
 +
[[Photometry]]:
  
[[Photometry]] : absolute: 0.3-1.0 µm: better than 1% over all configurations    
+
''absolute'':  
                        (relative to a calibrated Spectralon 0.99 reference panel)
+
1.0-2.5 µm: better than 1% over all configurations
+
2.5-5 µm : better than 2% over all configurations
+
relative : better than 0.5% (0.3-2.5 µm)
+
  
[[Polarimetry options]] (only partly tested)
+
- 0.3-1.0 µm: better than 1% over all configurations (relative to a calibrated Spectralon 0.99 reference panel)  
- Illumination : linear polarization : variable 0 to 90°
+
spectral range : 0.3 - 2.8 µm  
+
- Observation : 1 component over the 0.3 - 5µm range + unpolarized
+
or || and ┴ components over restricted spectral range
+
+
[[Samples]]
+
- Types: rocks, minerals, snow / ice, sulfur, ... (from very bright to dark)
+
- Texture: compact or granular
+
- Grain size: micrometer to a few millimeters
+
- Size:         maxi: 300mm diameter, 250 mm deep (bright & coarse grained samples) 120 mm in diameter, 2-10 mm deep (dark or fine grained samples)
+
mini: 25 mm x 120 mm (for principal plane observation down to 80°)
+
25 mm x 45 mm (for principal plane observation down to 60°)
+
[[Temperature]]: room temperature or heated
+
down to -20°C (in cold room)
+
down to -40°C (in SERAC environmental cell)
+
  
 +
- 1.0-2.5 µm: better than 1% over all configurations
 +
 +
- 2.5-5 µm : better than 2% over all configurations
 +
 +
''relative'' :
  
[[Experiment control]]:        PC/Windows,  fully software controlled (LabView©).  
+
- better than 0.5% (0.3-2.5 µm)
                                automatic acquisition of all spectral/geometric configurations
+
 
 +
[[Polarimetry options]] (only partly tested)
 +
 
 +
''Illumination'' :
 +
 
 +
- linear polarization : variable 0 to 90° ; spectral range : 0.3 - 2.8 µm
 +
 
 +
''Observation'' :
 +
 
 +
- 1 component over the 0.3 - 5µm range + unpolarized or || and ┴ components over restricted spectral range
 +
 +
[[Samples]]
 
   
 
   
[[Acquisition time]]: typical 15 mn for 200 spectral channels in visible (S/N dependent) total : 15 hours for 100 spectral channels and 100 geometries
+
- ''Types'': rocks, minerals, snow / ice, sulfur, ... (from very bright to dark)  
  
[[Current state of system]]: 0.3 - 5 µm range : fully calibrated
+
- ''Texture'': compact or granular
polarization : tested -> 2003
+
low temperature : tested in cold room down to -20°C
+
[[
+
Availability to community]]: Technical improvements/calibration (20%)
+
LPG + associated laboratories measurements (60%)
+
open to specific collaborations w. funding (20%)
+
  
'''References''':  
+
- ''Grain size'': micrometer to a few millimeters
Bonnefoy, N., O. Brissaud, B. Schmitt, S. Douté, M. Fily, W. Grundy, and P. Rabou 2000. Experimental system for the study of planetary surface materials’ BRDF. Remote Sensing. Rev., 19, 59-74.
+
+
Bonnefoy, N. 2001. Développement d’un spectrophoto-goniomètre pour l’étude de la réflectance bidirectionnelle des surfaces géophysiques. Application au soufre et perspectives pour le satellite Io. PhD Thesis, LPG - Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (20/11/2001).
+
  
Brissaud, O., B. Schmitt, N. Bonnefoy, S. Douté, P. Rabou, W. Grundy, and M. Fily 2004. Spectrogonio radiometer for the study of the bidirectional reflectance and polarization functions of planetary surfaces: I. Design and tests. Appl. Optics, 43 (9), 1926-1937.
+
- ''Size'';
  
Pommerol, A., and B. Schmitt 2008. Strength of the H2O near-infrared absorption bands in hydrated minerals: Effects of particle size and correlation with albedo. J. Geophys. Res E, 113, E10009 [doi:10.1029/2007JE003069]
+
maxi: 300mm diameter, 250 mm deep (for bright & coarse grained samples) OR 120 mm in diameter, 2-10 mm deep (for dark or fine grained samples)
  
Pommerol, A., and B. Schmitt 2008. Strength of the H2O near-infrared absorption bands in hydrated minerals: Effects of measurement geometry. J. Geophys. Res E, 113, E12008 [doi: 10.1029/2008JE003197].
+
mini: 25 mm x 120 mm (for principal plane observation down to 80°) OR 25 mm x 45 mm (for principal plane observation down to 60°)
+
Pommerol, A., Schmitt B., Beck, P., Brissaud, O. 2009. Water sorption on Martian regolith analogs: thermodynamics and near-IR reflectance spectroscopy.  Icarus soumis
+
  
 +
[[Temperature]]:
 +
 +
- room temperature or heated
 +
 +
- down to -20°C (in cold room)
 +
 +
- down to -40°C (in SERAC environmental cell)
 +
 +
[[Experiment control]]:     
 +
 +
- PC/Windows,  fully software controlled (LabView©). Automatic acquisition of all spectral/geometric configurations
 +
 +
[[Acquisition time]]:
 +
 +
- typical 15 mn for 200 spectral channels in visible (S/N dependent)
 +
 +
- total : 15 hours for 100 spectral channels and 100 geometries
 +
 +
[[Current state of system]]:
 +
 +
- 0.3 - 5 µm range : fully calibrated
 +
 +
- polarization : tested (not available for external users)
 +
 +
- low temperature : tested in cold room down to -20°C
  
 
* Characteristics: [[File:Spectro-Gonio_characteristics.pdf]]
 
* Characteristics: [[File:Spectro-Gonio_characteristics.pdf]]
 
* Article Brissaud et al. 2004: [[File:brissaud04-AplOpt-43-1926_spectrogonio-radiometer.pdf]]
 
* Article Brissaud et al. 2004: [[File:brissaud04-AplOpt-43-1926_spectrogonio-radiometer.pdf]]
 +
 +
 +
'''Availability to community:'''
 +
 +
- Technical improvements/calibration (20%)
 +
 +
- IPAG + associated laboratories measurements (60%)
 +
 +
- open as facility or to specific collaborations w. funding (20%)
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
 +
'''References''':
 +
 +
- Bonnefoy, N., O. Brissaud, B. Schmitt, S. Douté, M. Fily, W. Grundy, and P. Rabou 2000. Experimental system for the study of planetary surface materials’ BRDF. Remote Sensing. Rev., 19, 59-74.
 +
 +
- Bonnefoy, N. 2001. Développement d’un spectrophoto-goniomètre pour l’étude de la réflectance bidirectionnelle des surfaces géophysiques. Application au soufre et perspectives pour le satellite Io. PhD Thesis, LPG - Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (20/11/2001).
 +
 +
- Brissaud, O., B. Schmitt, N. Bonnefoy, S. Douté, P. Rabou, W. Grundy, and M. Fily 2004. Spectrogonio radiometer for the study of the bidirectional reflectance and polarization functions of planetary surfaces: I. Design and tests. Appl. Optics, 43 (9), 1926-1937.
 +
 +
- Pommerol, A., and B. Schmitt 2008. Strength of the H2O near-infrared absorption bands in hydrated minerals: Effects of particle size and correlation with albedo. J. Geophys. Res E, 113, E10009 [doi:10.1029/2007JE003069]
 +
 +
- Pommerol, A., and B. Schmitt 2008. Strength of the H2O near-infrared absorption bands in hydrated minerals: Effects of measurement geometry. J. Geophys. Res E, 113, E12008 [doi: 10.1029/2008JE003197].
 +
 +
- Pommerol, A., Schmitt B., Beck, P., Brissaud, O. 2009. Water sorption on Martian regolith analogs: thermodynamics and near-IR reflectance spectroscopy.  Icarus soumis

Revision as of 21:07, 3 November 2014

Laboratory Experiment facility

spectro-gonio radiometer

This spectro-gonio radiometer has been specially designed to measure with a high photometric accuracy the bidirectional reflectance of bright planetary materials over most of the solar spectrum and under wide illumination/observation configurations.

Location: Institut de Planétologie et Astrophysique de Grenoble CNRS - Université Grenoble Alpes Saint Martin d’Hères, France

Persons in charge:

- Scientific : Bernard Schmitt, Research director

- Technical : Olivier Brissaud, Engineer


Technical characteristics:

Spectral range : 0.3 - 4.5 µm (-> 5.0 µm: lower S/N) (4.2-4.3µm: atm. CO2 limited)

Spectral resolution : variable

- mini: < 0.1 nm (but S/N limited)

- maxi: 6 nm (<750nm), 12 nm (<1500nm), 24 nm (<3000nm), 48nm (>3000nm)

Bidirectional Reflectance

- Incidence angle: 0° to 85° ; resolution: 0.1° ; maximum sampling : 0.1°

- Emergence angle: 0° to 80° (to 83° for dark / fine grained samples) ; resolution : ± 2° (may be reduced to < ± 0.5°, but S/N limited) ; max. sampling : 0.1°

- Azimuth angle: 0° to 180° ; resolution : ± 2° (may be reduced to < ± 0.5°, but S/N limited) ; max. sampling : 0.1°

- Phase angle: mini to 165° ; mini : ~ 8° for bright / large grained samples ; ~ 4° for dark / fine grained samples

- Illumination diameter (nadir): 200 mm - Observation diameter (nadir): 20 mm

Photometry:

absolute:

- 0.3-1.0 µm: better than 1% over all configurations (relative to a calibrated Spectralon 0.99 reference panel)

- 1.0-2.5 µm: better than 1% over all configurations

- 2.5-5 µm : better than 2% over all configurations

relative :

- better than 0.5% (0.3-2.5 µm)

Polarimetry options (only partly tested)

Illumination :

- linear polarization : variable 0 to 90° ; spectral range : 0.3 - 2.8 µm

Observation :

- 1 component over the 0.3 - 5µm range + unpolarized or || and ┴ components over restricted spectral range

Samples

- Types: rocks, minerals, snow / ice, sulfur, ... (from very bright to dark)

- Texture: compact or granular

- Grain size: micrometer to a few millimeters

- Size;

maxi: 300mm diameter, 250 mm deep (for bright & coarse grained samples) OR 120 mm in diameter, 2-10 mm deep (for dark or fine grained samples)

mini: 25 mm x 120 mm (for principal plane observation down to 80°) OR 25 mm x 45 mm (for principal plane observation down to 60°)

Temperature:

- room temperature or heated

- down to -20°C (in cold room)

- down to -40°C (in SERAC environmental cell)

Experiment control:

- PC/Windows, fully software controlled (LabView©). Automatic acquisition of all spectral/geometric configurations

Acquisition time:

- typical 15 mn for 200 spectral channels in visible (S/N dependent)

- total : 15 hours for 100 spectral channels and 100 geometries

Current state of system:

- 0.3 - 5 µm range : fully calibrated

- polarization : tested (not available for external users)

- low temperature : tested in cold room down to -20°C


Availability to community:

- Technical improvements/calibration (20%)

- IPAG + associated laboratories measurements (60%)

- open as facility or to specific collaborations w. funding (20%)



References:

- Bonnefoy, N., O. Brissaud, B. Schmitt, S. Douté, M. Fily, W. Grundy, and P. Rabou 2000. Experimental system for the study of planetary surface materials’ BRDF. Remote Sensing. Rev., 19, 59-74.

- Bonnefoy, N. 2001. Développement d’un spectrophoto-goniomètre pour l’étude de la réflectance bidirectionnelle des surfaces géophysiques. Application au soufre et perspectives pour le satellite Io. PhD Thesis, LPG - Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (20/11/2001).

- Brissaud, O., B. Schmitt, N. Bonnefoy, S. Douté, P. Rabou, W. Grundy, and M. Fily 2004. Spectrogonio radiometer for the study of the bidirectional reflectance and polarization functions of planetary surfaces: I. Design and tests. Appl. Optics, 43 (9), 1926-1937.

- Pommerol, A., and B. Schmitt 2008. Strength of the H2O near-infrared absorption bands in hydrated minerals: Effects of particle size and correlation with albedo. J. Geophys. Res E, 113, E10009 [doi:10.1029/2007JE003069]

- Pommerol, A., and B. Schmitt 2008. Strength of the H2O near-infrared absorption bands in hydrated minerals: Effects of measurement geometry. J. Geophys. Res E, 113, E12008 [doi: 10.1029/2008JE003197].

- Pommerol, A., Schmitt B., Beck, P., Brissaud, O. 2009. Water sorption on Martian regolith analogs: thermodynamics and near-IR reflectance spectroscopy. Icarus soumis

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